Tutors Panaretos Homework Help

Unformatted text preview: International Topical Meeting on MICROWAVE PHOTONICS Technical Digest Including High Speed Photonics Components Workshop October 12-14, 1998 Sarnoff Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey DISTRIBUTION STATEMK^T * Approved for Public Rele»* Distribu*'*-'* i/^limttP'4 MWP'98 19991006 124 »>»■*» IEEE <*oSn5** • IW MTTS 0 SARNOFF Corporat ion o rn r^ o o r-^ u 3 C co o rn CQ >Ö O o *Ö o 2.1 c «n Q. o S C/5 ■a cj u CC © 0-i u 2 a. ^ <2 © .k- s c Tf k. t/i D. (0 © o •<f o a. so a ^ H 3 rn O © ^-^ (3 u k« CQ o T) u a. to a. o o CQ O © r*-> <N V) u J= D. eo u k* T! t3 «3 CJ S 12 o 1?u 3 T3 O to Jo a. a. s *~*1 us Ä t2 a 8 8 c o u a. CO D. v\ © rn C/5 o O oo je E r: a, o ^ *"• o o c ~ •a o o -C u en J= §1 J c/l CJ C 3 ■gW _J •"■* — « CQ c 3 <N o o -J <N CO a. •""" o f> t/j o © MM c/l U •—I "71 o CO 2 .= E > a 1_ >% u on o OD --~s (/I k. u a. CO o. CJ 3 ' H VO '£ © on c 11 a. c u ^^ ^^ c/) tA 4J Q. CO O. VO ü> <uE SB Z c« >> m u. u a. CO a. m 03 "■" s es 3 es ■*-■ es aCS U two o (a- o © .* CO © ka u. CO u k. CQ CO •"■' JX; CO CJ k. 03 o •71 «^ o © ON MM +■ 00 2 £.1 a. on o o .E 3 H 11 o<2 U a. jg in u CQ rn ©ö 2-S «1 CO k. "> <-»> -> 41 « 3 5b a. CO Q. *—' en _ < U .1» 3 O" z-g H ■* C? — "B 5^ CO k. u D. CO a. >n ^-^' Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 1204 Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave Blank) 2. REPORT DATE October 1998 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final Technical 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Digest of the 1998 International topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics 5. FUNDING NUMBERS G N00014-99-1-0114 MWP'98 6. AUTHORS Multiple 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331 Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Office of Naval Research Ballston Centre Tower One 800 North Quincy Street Arlington, VA 22217-5660 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The wideband, low loss transmission capability of optical systems has led to considerable interest in their use for distributing and controlling microwave signals in applications such as antenna remoting, wideband cable television distribution, optically controlled phased arrays and microwave signal processing. The use of microwave sub-carrier multiplexing on dark fiber systems also may be of importance in the near future, and to realize multi-gigabit optical communication systems, microwave design techniques must be used. The International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics is intended to present recent advances in the multi-disciplinary research area, ranging from novel devices to systems deployed in the field. 14. SUBJECT TERMS microwave optical fiber links and systems, millimeter wave optical fiber links and systems, optically controlled microwave devices, optically controlled millimeter wave devices, microwave aspects of optical signal processing, optical distribution of signals in microwave systems, ultra-fast optoelectronic microwave measurements, optical control and beam shaping of phased array antennas, microwave sub-carrier multiplexing optical systems, high-speed light modulation and detection devices 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 266 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified NSN 7540-01-280-5500 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics MWP'98 October 12-14, 1998 Sarnoff Corportion Princeton, New Jersey Technical Digest (including High Speed Photonics Components Workshop) Contents Message from the Conference Chairmen • »i Committee Organization Information« Message from the Technical Program Committee Chairman Technical Program Schedule iv * - v v ~ " Technical Sessions MA1 Plenary Session: Broadband Fiber-Radio Access Networks MB Fiber Wireless Systems ■ MC Modulators..... P Poster Session • ■ TuA Photonic Beamforming I TuB Photonic Beamforming II • TuC Lasers TuD Photodetectors WA Novel Techniques WB Novel Systems t 5 29 - 5_f 115 ■ 135 153 173 195 211 Workshop: High Speed Photonics Components 231 Author Index 249 XmC QUAUT7 INSPECTED 4 * 1 1 i^uLnK?^! ?^ I fcurlNICAL DIGEST T0P,CAL MEETING ON MICROWAVE PHOTONICS Copyright and Reprint Permission: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limit of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons those articles in this volume that carry a code at the bottom of the first page, provided the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through Copvriqht Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For other copying, reprint or republican permission, wnte to IEEE Copyrights Manager, IEEE Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane PO Box 1331 P.scataway NJ 08855-1331. All rights reserved. Copyright ®1998 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. IEEE Catalog Number 98EX181 ISBN 0-7803-4936-9 (softbound) ISBN 0-7803-4937-7 (microfiche) Library of Congress Number 98-85266 1998 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Message from the Conference Chairmen Chi H. Lee University of Maryland Peter R. Herczfeld Drexel University Welcome to MWP'98, which is jointly sponsored by the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society and the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society. For the first time the meeting is held in an industrial research center that has contributed significantly to the advance of microwave photonics. We are indebted to Sarnoff Corporation for offering its beautiful campus and superb facilities for this meeting. This meeting is intended to bring together scientists and engineers who are interested in microwave photonics. They will present recent advances and exchange freely ideas in this multi-disciplinary research area, ranging from novel devices to systems deployed in the field. This meeting is one in the series of meetings that began with the first LEOS Summer Topical Meeting in 1991 at Newport Beach, California on "Optical Millimeter Interactions: Measurements, Generation, Transmission and Control." This was followed by another meeting two years later—the 1993 meeting on Optical Microwave Interactions at Santa Barbara, California—before it became international (Cernayla-Ville, France, 1994; Keystone, Colorado, USA, 1995; Kyoto, Japan, 1996; Duisburg, Germany, 1997). We are particularly pleased to be witnessing steady growth of this field. For example, in 1991 most of the papers were in the device area with a very small pool of contributed papers. This year there are many papers on system applications in addition to the traditional device papers, which were selected from a much larger paper pool. Although it is interesting to note that many early contributors are still active in this field, it is even more gratifying to see many newcomers who are the new blood for the field. As the meeting's general co-chairs, we would like to thank all those who have contributed to the success of this meeting, including the speakers, the panelists, the Technical Program Committee and meeting organization committee. Help provided by the LEOS staff is gratefully acknowledged. This meeting is partially supported by the following federal agencies: U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and NSF. in 1998 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics General Co-Chairs Chi H. Lee University of Maryland College Park, MD Program Chair Peter R. Herczfeld Drexel University Philadelphia, PA Charles Cox MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA Finance Chair Workshop Chair Special Events Richard Sparks ANRO Engineering Maynard, MA Arye Rosen Sarnoff Corporation Princeton, NJ Steven Forrest Princeton University Princeton, NJ Corporate & Government Liason Exhibit Chair Local Arrangements Afshin S. Daryoush Drexel University Philadelphia, PA Arthur Paolella Lockhead-Martin Newtown, PA Alice Archer Sarnoff Corporation Princeton, NJ Technical Program Committee Optics: RF: Nadir Dagli, Co-chair University of California Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA Tatsuo Itoh, Co-chair UCLA Los Angeles, CA Joseph Abeles Sarnoff Corporation Princeton, NJ Tibor Berceli Technical Institute of Budapest HUNGARY John Brock TRW Redondo Beach, CA William Bridges California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA Ronald Esman Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC Hiroyo Ogawa NTT Wireless System Laboratories Kanagawa, JAPAN Ken-ichi Kitayama Communications Research Laboratory Koganei-shi, JAPAN Steve Pappert NCCOSC San Diego, CA Dalma Novak University of Melbourne Parkville, AUSTRALIA Ming Wu UCLA Los Angeles, CA Advisory Committee William Miceli Office of Naval Research Arlington, VA Gary Betts MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA Steven Forrest Princeton University Princeton, NJ Winston Way National Chiao-Tung University Hsinchu, TAIWAN David Wake BT Laboratories Ipswich, UK Michael VanBlaricum Toyon Research Corporation Goleta, CA IV Francois DeBorgies Thomson-CSF/LCR Orsay, FRANCE 1998 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Message from the Technical Program Committee Chairman Charles H. Cox HI MIT Lincoln Laboratory On behalf of the technical program committee, I would like to add our welcome to MWP98. These are exciting times for microwave photonics: the fruits of our initial researches are being applied to systems and new research is providing the basis for enhanced performance in the present as well as for wider applications in the future. We have tried to have the technical program for MWP98 meet the growing needs of our field in two key ways. One way is that we tried to have a balanced technical program, both between microwaves and photonics as well as among devices, links and systems. To this end the technical program committee was divided into two sub-committees, each of which was composed of members who are experts in the individual disciplines as well as those with expertise across both disciplines. The other way we have tried to meet the growing needs of the field is to expand the length of the conference. The strength and number of submitted papers (78) permitted us to expand the length of the conference by half a day so that a reasonable percentage of papers could be accepted—we finished at 73% acceptance. We hope you have a technically challenging and interesting visit to MWP98. VI 1998 International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Technical Program Schedule Monday, 12 October 1998 8:30am - 10:00am MA Plenary Session Presider: P. Herczfeld, Drexel University, Philadephia, PA 8:30am - 8:40am Welcome by P. Herczfeld, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 8:40am - 8:50am Welcome by C. Lee, University of Maryland, College Park, MA 8:50am - 9:10am Special Remarks by Michael Ettenberg, Sarnoff Corporation, Princeton, NJ 8:30am - 9:50am (Plenary Speaker) MAI Broadband Fibre-Radio Access Networks A. Seeds, University College London, London, UK 9:50am - 10:30am BREAK 10:30am - 12:00noon MB Fiber Wireless Systems Presider: D. Novak, University of Melbourne, Parkville, AUSTRALIA 10:30am - 10:45am MB1 All Optoelectronic Generation and Detection of Millimeter-Wave Signals T. Nagatsuma, N. Sahri, M. Yaita, T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu and K. Sato, NTT Systems, Kanagawa, JAPAN 10:45am - 11:00am . MB 2 Millimeter-Wave Multi-Channel CDMA Fiber-Radio G. H. Smith, A. Nirmalathas and D. Novak, University of Melbourne, Parkville, AUSTRALIA 11:00am - 11:15am MB 3 Multicarrier Disbribution of Multiplex Digital Compressed TV Channels Using a Harmonic Laser Source at 38 GHz D. Mathoorasing, S. Bouchoule and C. Kazmierski, OPTO+, Marcoussis, FRANCE and D. Tanguay, J. F. Cadiou, P. Legaud and E. Penard, France Telecom, Lannion, FRANCE 11:15am - 11:30am MB 4 A Novel Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Uplink Incorporating 60GHz-Band Photonic Downconversion with Remotely Fed Optical Pilot Tone Using an Electroabsorption Modulator T. Kuri, K. Kitayama and Y. Ogawa, OKI Electric Industry, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, JAPAN vii Monday, 12 October 1998 11:30am - 11:45am MB 5 A Photoconductive Correlation Receiver For Wireless Digital Communications E. E. Funk, S. Ramsey, C. H. Lee and J. Craven, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 11:45am - 12:00noon MB 6 Packaging For Millimetre Wave Fibre-Radio Modules C. R. Pescod, G.M. Auker, P. T. Sharp, R. G. Sirett and T. P. Young, GEC-Marconi Research Centre, Essex, UK 12:00noon - 1:30pm LUNCH 1:30pm - 3:20pm MC Modulators Presider: W. Bridges, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 1:30pm - 1:55pm (Invited) MCI Electroabsorption Waveguide Modulators for High Performance Analog Fiber Links P. K. L. Yu, R. B. Welstand, G. L. Li, W. X. Chen, and J. T. Zhu, University of California, San Diego, CA and S. A. Pappert, C. K. Sun, and R. Nguyen, SPAWAR System Center, San Diego, CA and Y. Z. Liu, Fermionics Laser Technology, Simi Valley, CA 1:55pm - 2:10pm MC2 Polarization-Insensitive Multiple-Quantum-Well Traveling-Wave Electroabsorption Modulators with 18 GHz Bandwidth and 1.2 V Driving Voltage at 1.55 Jim S. Z. Zhang, Y. J. Chiu, P. Abraham and J. E. Bowers, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 2:10pm - 2:25pm MC3 Error Free Full Duplex Optical WDM-FDM Transmission Using an EATransceiver A. Stohr and D. Jager, Gerhard-Mercator-Universitat, Duisburg, GERMANY and K. Kitayama Communication Research Laboratories, Tokyo, JAPAN 2:25pm - 2:50pm (Invited) MC4 Synthesis of the Optical Modulator Response C. Laliew, S. Lovset, X. Zhang, and A. Gopinath, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 2:50pm - 3:05pm MC5 Linearization of a Broadband Analog Optical Link Using Multiple Wavelengths E. Ackerman, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 3:05pm - 3:20pm MC6 Broadband Linearization of Externally Modulated Fiber-Optic Links Y. Chiu and B. Jalali, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA VI» Monday, 12 October 1998 3:20pm - 4:00pm BREAK 4:00pm - 5:00pm Poster Session PI Microwave Fiber Optic Link Antenna Remoting Trade Study Measurements I. L. Newberg, Raytheon Systems Company, Los Angeles, CA P2 Tax Calibration of Optical Scattering Parameter Test Set B. Elamaran, R. D. Pollard and S. Iezekiel, University of Leeds, England, UK P3 Hybrid Fiber-Radio Systems in the mm Wave Range: A Comparison Between Available Optical Sources J. F. Cadiou, D. Tanguay, E. Penard and P. Jaffre, France Telecom, Lannion, FRANCE and H. Schmuck, Alcatel Alshtom Corporate Research Center, Stuttgart, GERMANY and E. Vergnol and D. Mathoorasing, OPTO+, Marcoussis, FRANCE P4 A New Optical Distribution Approach For Millimeter Wave Radio T. Marozsak, T. Berceli, G. Jaro, A. Zolomy, A. Hilt, S. Mihaly, E. Udvary, Z. Varga, Technical University of Budapest, Budapest, HUNGARY P5 Microwave Multichannel System with a Sideband Injection Locking Scheme in the 60 GHz-Band C. G. Schaffer, FH Lübeck, Lübeck, GERMANY and R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, F. Schmidt and M. Rohde, Heinrich-Hertz-Institut fur Nachrichtentechnik Berlin GmbH, Berlin, GERMANY P6 Interferometric Modulators Linearized to Arbitrary Order M. E. Marhic, Northwestern University, Evanston, TL P7 Seamless Integration of Fiber Optic Networks and Millimeter-Wave Wireless Access Using Nonlinear Photo-Detection Scheme M. Tsuchiya, T. Hoshida and K. Nishikawa, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, JAPAN P8 Sensitivity Analysis of Optical SSB Generation Using a Dual-Electrode MachZehnder Modulator A. Nirmalathas, G. H. Smith and D. Novak, University of Melbourne, Parkville, AUSTRALIA P9 Fiber to the Air (FTTA) System Using Optical Coherence Coded Multiplexing Scheme K. Tsukamoto, S. Obata and S. Komaki, Osaka University, Suita-shi, JAPAN P10 Integrated Optics Photonic Mixer for an All-Optical Implementation of a Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Oscillator S. Dubovitsky, V. Chuyanov, S. Garner and W. H. Steier, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA IX Monday, 12 October 1998 Pll Low Close-To-Carrier Noise Systems M. Nawaz and T. P. Young, GEC Marconi Research Centre, Essex, UK P12 Large Area, High Speed Phototube with a GaAsP Photocathode and GaAs MetalSemiconductor-Metal Anode T. A. Yost and P. Herczfeld, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA and V. Contarino, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Patuxent River, MD PI3 Optical Single-Sideband Modulation with Delay Pre-Distortion for Fiber-Radio Applications R. A. Griffin, P. M. Lane and J. J. O'Reilly, University College London, London, UK PI4 Modeling of Chirping Laser Diodes for Microwave Generation and Transmission Over Dispersive Fibres W. Freude, P. Palai and I. A. Sukhoivanov, Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, GERMANY PI5 Nonlinear Biasing of MZ-EOM Devices to Experimentally Reduce Chromatic Dispersion Effects in Antenna Remoting Up-Converting Fiber-Optic Links J. M. Fuster, J. Marti, V. Polo, F. Ramos and J. L. Corral, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, SPAIN PI6 Photorefractive Phased Array Beamforming with True-Time-Delay Processing A. Kiruluta, P. E. X. Silveira, G. Kriehn, S. Weaver and K. Wagner, University of Colorado Boudler, CO PI7 High Performance Long-Wavelength Velocity-Matched Distributed Photodetectors For RF Fiber Optic Links T. Chau, S. Mathai, A. Rollinger, M. C. Wu and T. Itoh, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA and D. L. Sivco and A. Y. Cho, Lucent Technologies, Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, NJ and D. C. Scott and T. A. Vang, TRW, Redondo Beach, CA PI8 A Genetic Algorithm for the Design of All-Optical Microwave Filters T. A. Cusick, S. Iezekiel and R. Miles, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK 5:00pm - 6:00pm RECEPTION Tuesday, 13 October 1998 8:30am - 9:55am TuA Photonic Beamforming I Presider: R. Esman, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 8:30am - 8:55am (Invited) TuAl Microwave Phase Conjugation Using Optically Interconnected Arrays Y. Chang and H. R. Fetterman, University of California, Los Angeles, CA and B. Tsap, Pacific Wave Industries, Los Angeles, CA, and I. L. Newberg and S. K. Panateros, Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA 8:55am - 9:10am TuA2 Optical Distribution of Reference Signals to a Digital Beamforming Antenna J. Onnegren and L. Pettersson, National Defence Research Establishment, Linkoping, SWEDEN 9:10am - 9:25am TuA3 Volume Array With Optical Feeds A. D. Carr and P. J. Tittensor, GEC-Marconi Research Center, Essex, UK 9:25am - 9:40am TuA4 Experimental Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Rotman Beamformer R. A. Sparks and N. Slawsby, ANRO Engineering, Inc., Maynard, MA and J. Prince and J. Munro, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 9:40am - 9:55am TuA5 Photonic Integrated Beamformer for Phased-Array Antennas J. Stulemeijer, Delft University, Delft, THE NETHERLANDS 9:55am - 10:30am BREAK 10:30am - 12:00noon TuB Photonic Beamforming II Presider: J. Brock, TRW, Redondo Beach, CA 10:30am - 10:45am TuBl Optical Processing of 44 GHz Microwave Signals in an Adaptive Nuller P. A. Schulz, R. A. Brown and S. R. Henion, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 10:45am - 11:00am TuB 2 Microwave Phase Detection for Angle of Arrival Detection Using a 4-Channel Optical Downconverter P. D. Biernacki, A. Ward, L. T. Nichols and R. D. Esman, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 11:00am - 11:15am TuB 3 Optical Phase Locked Loop (OPLL) Module for Use as a 9 GHz Source in Phased Array Communications Antennas L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge and M. J. Wale, GEC-Marconi Materials Technology, Towcester, UK and U. Gliese, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DENMARK and X. Huang and A. J. Seeds, University College London, London, UK ■ xi Tuesday, 13 October 1998 11:15am - 11:30am TuB4 Developments in Photonic Beam-Forming M. F. Lewis, P. Sample and R. A. Wilson, DERA, Worcestershire, UK 11:30am - 11:45am TuB5 New Variable Phase Shifter Array Using Resonator with Graded Reflectivity Mirror for Single-Control Steerable Phased Array Antenna B. Dingel and M. Izutsu, Communication Research Laboratory, Tokyo, JAPAN 11:45am - 12:00noon TuB6 Double Heterodyne Filtering of Received Signals in Optically Time-Delay Controlled Antennas S. Tonda-Goldstein, L. Pastur, D. Dolfi, J. P. Huignard, T. Merlet, O. Maas, J. Chazelas, Thomson - CSF, Orsay, FRANCE 12:00noon - 1:30pm LUNCH and Panel Discussion Panel Discussion Abstract The committee has arranged for a panel of technical leaders to discuss "What Photonics Can Do For Me" by focusing on the role of photonics in today's systems and the direction for future growth. This panel will discuss the role of broadband photonics in the commercial arena and in military systems. The present list of speakers at the panel discussion includes: Michel Schaler - Dassault Electronics, FRANCE Dr. Masayuki Izutsu - Communications Research Laboratories, JAPAN Dr. Stephen Pappert - NR&D, USA Dr. Caroline Gee - Ortel Corporation, USA Dr. Gregory L. Tangonan (Panel Leader) - HRL Laboratories, USA 1:30pm - 2:55pm TuC Lasers Presider: N. Dagli, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 1:30pm - 1:55pm (Invited) TuCl Advanced Microwave Photonic Devices for Analog Optical Links D. Jager, A. Stohr, and R. Heinzelmann, Gerhard-Mercator University, Duisburg, GERMANY 1:55pm - 2:10pm TuC2 Broadband, Directly Modulated Analog Fiber Link With Positive Intrinsic Gain and Reduced Noise Figure C. H. Cox, m, H. V. Roussell, R. J. Ram, R. J. Helkey, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 2:10pm - 2:25pm TuC3 Novel Integrated Laser Devices with Greatly Enhanced Quantum Efficiency and Intrinsic RF Matching for Low Loss, Broadband Opto-Microwave Applications S. G. Ayling, D. R. Wright, M. Allenson, K. P. Hilton and G. W. Smith, Defence Evaluation Research Agency, Malvern, UK XII Tuesday, 13 October 1998 2:25pm - 2:40pm TuC4 Two-Section Integrated Quantum-Confined Stark Effect Tuned Laser with Uniform Frequency Modulation Response from 30kHz to 6GHz X. Huang and A. J. Seeds, University College London, London, UK and J. S. Roberts, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK and A. P. Knights, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK 2:40pm - 2:55pm TuC5 Clock Source-Limited Low Jitter, Subterahertz Signal Generation from ModeLocked Semiconductor Laser Controlled by Phase Lock Loop (PLL) With Photonic Downconversion E. Hashimoto and A. Takada, NTT Optical Network Systems Labs., Kanagawa, JAPAN and Y. Katagiri, NTT Opto-electronics Labs., Tokyo, JAPAN 2:55pm - 3:30pm BREAK 3:30pm - 4:45pm TuD Photodetectors Presider: F. DeBorgies, Thomson-CSF/LCR, Orsay, FRANCE 3:30pm - 3:45pm TuDl Distributed Millimeter-Wave InGaAs Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector E. Droge, E. H. Böttcher, St. Kollakowski, A. Strittmatter and D. Bimberg, Technishce Universität Berlin, Berlin, GERMANY and O. Reimann, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus, Cottbus, GERMANY and R. Steingruber and A. Umbech, Heinrich-HertzInstitute fur Nachrichtentechnik Berlin GmbH, Berlin, GERMANY 3:45pm - 4:00pm TuD2 Distibuted Balanced Photodetectors for High Performance RF Photonic Links M. S. Islam, T. Chau, A R. Rollinger, S. Mathai, W. R. Deal, T. Itoh and M. C. Wu, University of California, Los Angeles, CA and A. Nespola, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, ITALY 4:00pm - 4:15pm TuD3 1.55 um Absorption, High Speed, High Saturation Power P-I-N Photodetectors Using Low-Temperature Grown GaAs Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zhang, J. E. Bowers and U. K. Mishra, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 4:15pm - 4:30pm TuD4 Large-Signal Compression Measurements in High-Current P-I-N Photodiodes with +11 to +20 dBm Output Microwave Power K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 4:30pm - 4:45pm TuD5 12dB Current Modulation by 1.55 urn Light Irradiation in Integrated Optically Controlled HEMT K. Shimomura, T. Sakai and Y. Nitta, Sophia University, Tokyo, JAPAN xui Tuesday, 13 October 1998 4:45pm - 5:00pm TuD6 Bandwidth Characteristics of InP/InGaAs Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiodes N. Shimizu, NTT Optical Network Systems Laboratories, Kanagawa, JAPAN and N. Watanabe, T. Furuta and T. Ishibashi, NTT Systems Electronics Laboratories, Kanagawa, JAPAN 5:00pm - 6:00pm POSTDEADLINE PAPER SESSION 6:00pm - 8:00pm BANQUET Wednesday, 14 October 1998 8:30am - 9:55am WA Novel Techniques Presider: K. Kitayama, Communications Research Laboratory, Koganei-shi, JAPAN 8:30am - 8:55am (Invited) WA1 The Opto-Electronic Oscillator: Prospects for Extending the State-of-the-art in Reference Frequency Generation L. Maleki, JPL, Pasadena, CA 8:55am - 9:10am WA2 Photonic Time-Stretch: A Potential Solution for Ultrafast A/D Conversion B. Jalali, A. S. Bhushan and F. Coppinger, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 9:10am - 9:25am WA3 Photonic RF Frequency Shifter Based on Highly Chirped Mode-Locked Fiber Laser J. U. Kang, M. Y. Frankel and R. D. Esman, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 9:25am - 9:40am WA4 A Novel Topology of Tuneable Optical Radio Frequency Notch Filter Using a Chirped Fibre Grating W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion, Aston University, Birmingham, UK 9:40am - 9:55am WA5 Signal-ASE Noise Filtering in Optical Millimeter-Wave Radio-over-Fiber Links R. A. Griffin, P. M. Lane and J. J. O'Reilly, University College London, London, UK 9:55am - 10:30am BREAK XIV Wednesday, 14 October 1998 10:30am - 11:55am WB Novel Systems Presider: S. Pappert, NCCOSC, San Diego, CA 10:30am - 10:55 (Invited) WB1 Coherent Fiber-Optic Links for Transmission and Signal Processing of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Signals U. Gliese, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DENMARK 10:55am - 11:10am WB2 2-Gbit/s Phase Shift Keying Based on Optical Delay Switching for Microwave Optical Link S. Fukushima, T. Ohno, Y. Doi, Y. Matsuoka and H. Takeuchi, NTT Optoelectronics Laboratories, Kanagawa, JAPAN 11:10am - 11:25am WB3 Simultaneous Electro-Optical Upconversion to 60 GHz of Uncoded OFDM Signals M. Sauer, K. Kojucharow, H. Kaluzni, D. Sommer and W. Nowak, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, GERMANY 11:25am - 11:40am . „,., „ WB4 Fading-Free Transport of 60GHz-Optical DSB Signal in Non-Dispersion Shifted Fiber Using Chirped Fiber Grating K. Kitayama, Communication Research Laboratory, Tokyo, JAPAN 11:40am - 11:55am . WB5 Generation, Routing, and Detection of 100 GSa/s Arbitrary Analog Optical Waveform Packets Using Analog Optical TDM P. Toliver, R. Runser, K. Deng, I. Glesk and P. Prucnal, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 11:55am - 1:30pm LUNCH 1:30pm - 3:00pm WORKSHOP: High Speed Photonics Components 1 State of the Art Laser Sources for High Bit Rate, Long Haul Fiber Optic Communications Systems W. D. Johnston, Jr., Lucent Technologies—Bell Labs, Murray Hill, NJ 2 Workshop on LiNb03 Broadband Modulators W. K. Burns, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 3 Recent Progresses in High Frequency, High Power Photodetectors M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. Chau, S. Islam, S. Mathai, A. Rollinger, and A. Nespola, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 4 45 GHz Wide Bandwidth InGaAs/InP Photoreceiver A. Joshi, X. Wang, and D. Mohr, Discovery Semiconductors, Inc., Cranbury, NJ and A. Paollela, Lockheed Martin CPC, Newtown, PA and W. Stacey, Raytheon Advanced Device Center, Lexington, MA XV XVI MAI BROADBAND FIBRE-RADIO ACCESS NETWORKS A. J. Seeds Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering.University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE, England, [email protected] ABSTRACT The paper will discuss architectures for providing broadband wireless access using optical fibre signal transport systems. Recent advances in microwave modulated optical signal generation using optical phase lock loops and fibre grating lasers and in signal detection using optically controlled heterostructure phototransistors will also be described. 1. INTRODUCTION Changes in working patterns make it attractive to be able to offer wireless access both within and outside buildings. Whilst the use of diffuse field infra-red access is attractive for within-building applications, problems of scattering/attenuation in fog and foliage obstruction suggest that this is unlikely to prove a reliable technology for outdoor use. Microwave access can offer reliable performance both indoors and outdoors, allowing a single communications interface to be used with substantial gains in simplicity and cost. Raw data rate requirements increase from of order 40 kb/s to > 150 Mb/s in moving from standard telephony to high resolution video systems. The increased data rates coupled with scarcity of allocable spectrum will require the use of much higher carrier frequencies than those in the 0.9 and 1.8 GHz bands currently used for cellular voice and cordless telephone access [1]. Initially, allocations at around 29 GHz may be used for broadband access services with evolution to frequencies in the range 62 GHz to 66 GHz for such systems as the European Union RACE Mobile Broadband System (MBS). The European Union has also allocated spectrum between 40.5 GHz and 42.5 GHz for Multipoint Video Distribution Services (MVDS). Propagation considerations at these frequencies will require base station separations of a few hundred metres at most. The problem of feeding such a large number of base stations and the complexity of base station equipment therefore needs careful attention. Digital optical fibre systems now carry the bulk of terrestrial long distance communications traffic and work is under way to bring fibre into the local network. The broadband low loss transmission properties of fibre [2] also suggest broadband wireless access architectures, where transmit and receive signals are modulated onto optical carriers for transport between the base stations and a central site where most of the electronic processing is carried out, thus yielding a significant reduction in base station complexity. 2. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURES A baseband transport architecture, although simplifying the optical transmission requirements and allowing either analogue or digital transmission, requires multiple channel modulators/demodulators and frequency generation at each base station. Channel re-allocation must be carried out by distributing appropriate control signals to the base stations with the baseband data. The complexity of the base stations can be reduced significantly by moving to the architecture of Figure 1. Here all signals are modulated/demodulated at the central site and the multi-channel ensemble is up/down-converted by a millimetre-wave local oscillator at each base station. This architecture requires analogue optical transmission of IF signals and a stable millimetre-wave source at each base station but remotes much of the system complexity to the central site. Frequency generation can be remoted entirely using the architecture of Figure 2. Here IF downlink signals are up-converted to the required millimetre-wave transmit frequency and modulate an optical source at the central site. A millimetre-wave modulated optical signal is also distributed to the base station to down-convert received signals to a convenient IF which directly modulates the uplink laser. The base station functions are thus simplified to transmit and receive amplification and uplink down-conversion and laser modulation at the expense of requiring millimetrewave optical modulation, transport and demodulation techniques. The architecture allows frequency generation and allocation to be carried out entirely at the central site and facilitates the provision of multiple and reconfigurable services from a single network of base stations. These advantages have made it the subject of intensive investigation worldwide [3-6]. 0-7803-4936-9/98/$10.00 © 1998 IEEE IF IN/OUT Antenna CENTRAL SITE ' MICRO-CELL SITE Figure 1: IF transport architecture. An important objective for practical systems is to include capability to remote several base stations from separate tapping points on a single optical fibre bus, thus improving the utilisation of installed fibre. This can be achieved in the architectures of Figures 1 and 2 by using wavelength division multiplex, with the architecture of Figure 2 allowing additional flexibility through simultaneous use of sub-carrier multiplex techniques. LOIN-— X 1.5 (im Source PIN _ Photo- LX>iplexerlJ] IF IN/OUT Antenna CENTRAL SITE MICRO-CELL SITE Figure 2: Millimetre-wave transport architecture. 3. SOURCES For intensity modulation schemes the only suitable directly modulated source is the semiconductor laser, and bandwidths in excess of 30GHz have been demonstrated [7]. External modulators can offer reduced dispersion penalties through low chirp operation. Mach-Zehnder interferometric modulators have been realised in both lithium niobate [8] and III-V semiconductor technologies [9] with bandwidths exceeding 50 GHz. However, if it is desired to use a millimetre-wave transport architecture with standard telecommunications fibre of dispersion 17 ps/(nm.km) the dispersion limited transmission distance will be only a few km [10]. The use of laser heterodyne techniques [11] with baseband modulation applied to only one of the laser outputs enables this limitation to be greatly eased since the dispersion penalty then applies only to the base-bandwidth. Such an approach requires either two carefully stabilised narrow linewidth lasers or an optical phase-lock loop (OPLL) to correlate the phase noise between the two lasers. Semiconductor lasers are preferred as sources due to their compactness, efficiency and relatively low cost, but their wide linewidths (typically 5MHz to 50 MHz for commercially available DFB devices) require loops having extremely wide bandwidths and short loop propagation delays [12], which are very difficult to implement. Figure 3 shows an architecture that we have developed which overcomes this limitation, the heterodyne optical injection phase-lock loop (OIPLL). A microwave reference signal at the required carrier frequency or one of its sub-harmonics frequency modulates the master laser (ML) producing sidebands, one of which is used to injection lock the slave laser (SL). The half wave (H) and quarter wave (Q) beam plates in conjunction with the optical isolators (I), polarising beam splitter (PBS) and non-polarising beam splitter (NBS) combine the master and slave laser outputs on the photodetector producing the heterodyne electrical output to drive a narrow bandwidth phase-lock loop, ensuring optimum tuning of the slave laser for phase noise suppression. Initial tests of this system using lasers with a beat linewidth of 36 MHz (beyond the limits for reliable operation of a conventional OPLL using bulk optics) have yielded microwave carriers with phase noise better than - 93 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and locking ranges greater than 20 GHz. To LSA and FPI Phase /N / Detector Figure 3: Heterodyne optical injection phase-lock loop. An alternative strategy is to package the laser with a suitable line narrowing element. Figure 4 shows such a device, a fibre grating laser (FGL) [13]. Gain section ■ !J ■ i ■ ■ Curved guide / facet p Waveguide i ^^^=^^^==' SSK^SSaMaW^=S5 C llllllllllllll N \Lensed fibre grating NB: Not to scale Figure 4: Fibre grating laser. Such lasers have linewidths of < 50 kHz at an output power of 1 mW, > 40 dB sidemode suppression and high temperature stability (< 2 GHz/K), since most of the resonant cavity is within the fibre. The narrow linewidth permits a high performance OPLL to be constructed with loop propagation delay up to 20 ns, so that conventional fibre-based construction techniques can be used. 4. DETECTORS AND DEMODULATORS For millimetre-wave transport architectures depletion layer photodetectors are preferred and -3dB bandwidths in excess of 100 GHz have been reported [14]. Two-terminal edge-coupled heterostructure bipolar transistor (HBT) detectors having unity current gain frequencies exceeding 30 GHz have also been reported [15] and offer the important attraction of an internal gain mechanism since high gain multi-stage amplifiers are difficult to realise at millimetre-wave frequencies. The alternative approach of using the optical signal to control or introduce signals directly into microwave devices has been of limited application owing to the very poor optical responsivities of most microwave devices [16]. The geometry of both edge-coupled and normal incidence illuminated HBTs is well adapted to combining high optical responsivity with good microwave performance. In an experiment on opto-electronic mixing of a 3 GHz RF modulated optical signal with a 2.5 GHz electrical local oscillator, using an edge-coupled device [17] we achieved an IF output 7 dB above that obtainable at RF with a 100% quantum efficient photodiode and 14 dB above that expected for such a photodiode combined with a double balanced diode mixer. These results confirm the excellent potential of the HBT as an optically controlled device for use within the architectures of both Figures 1 and 2. 5. CONCLUSION Broadband wireless access using IF or millimetre-wave optical transport offers the attractions of simplified base station architecture and suitability for both indoor and outdoor use using a common communications interface. Key challenges for the future are to determine optimum component technologies for the proposed systems and to develop volume manufacturing techniques capable of reducing the system acquisition costs to acceptable levels. A substantial contribution to this objective could come from monolithic integration of optical sources and receivers in optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) form. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank his academic and industrial colleagues for their many contributions to the work described here. Special thanks are due to Dr. D. Wake (BT Laboratories) for the supply of DFB lasers and edgecoupled HBTs. Work at University College London has been supported by the United Kingdom Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Nortel, the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the United States Army, the UK-Israel Science and Technology Fund and the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence. REFERENCES 1 A. J. Cooper, Fibre radio for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network", Electron. Lett., 26, pp. 2054-2056, 1990. 2 A. J. Seeds, "Optical transmission of microwaves" in Review of Radio Science, ed. W. R. Stone, Oxford, New York, pp. 335-360, 1996. 3. J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, M. H. Capstick, H. M. Salgado, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter and H. Schmuck, "RACE R2005: Microwave Optical Duplex Antenna Link", IEE Proc, 140 Pt. J., pp. 385-391, 1993. 4. K. Kitayama, T. Kuri, H. Yokoyama and M. Okuno, "60 GHz millimetre-wave generation and transport over OFDM fiber-optic networks", in Int. Top. Mtg. Microwave Photonics, Kyoto, 1996, pp. 49-52. 5. R. P. Braun, G. Grosskopf, D. Rohde and F. Schmidt, "Optical millimetre-wave generation and transmission experiments for mobile 60 GHz band communications", Electron. Lett., 32, pp. 626-628, 1996. 6. Z. Ahmed, D. Novak, R. B. Waterhouse and H. F. Liu, "37 GHz fibre-wireless system for distribution of broadband signals", Trans. IEEE, MTT-45, pp. 1431-1435, 1997. 7. R. S. Tucker and I. P. Kaminow, "High frequency characteristics of directly modulated InGaAsP ridge waveguide and buried heterostructure lasers", J. Lightwave Tech., LT-2, pp. 385-393, 1984. 8. K. Noguchi, H. Miyazawa, and O. Mitomi, "75 GHz broadband Ti:LiNb03 optical modulator with ridge structure", Electron. Lett., 1994, 30, pp. 949-951. 9. R. G. Walker in IEE Colloq. on Microwave Opto-electronics, London, 1994. 10. R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck and R. Heidemann, "Dispersion effects in optical millimetre-wave systems using self heterodyne method for transport and generation", Trans. IEEE, MTT-43, pp. 2263-2269, 1995. 11. A. J. Seeds, "Coherent techniques in analogue signal transmission", in Analogue Optical Fibre Communications, ed. B. Wilson, Z. Ghassemlooy and I. Darwazeh, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London 1995, pp. 33-50. 12. R. T. Ramos and A. J. Seeds, "Delay, linewidth and bandwidth limitations in optical phase-locked loop design", Electron. Lett., 26, pp. 389-391, 1990. 13. F. N. Timofeev, S. Bennett, R. Griffin, P. Bayvel, A. J. Seeds, R. Wyatt, R. Kashyap and M. Robertson, "High spectral purity millimetre-wave modulated optical signal generation using fibre grating lasers", in IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp., Baltimore, 1998, pp. 1221-1224. 14. D. G. Parker, P. G. Say and A. M. Hansom, "110GHz high efficiency photo-diodes fabricated from indium tinoxide/GaAs", Electron. Lett, 23, pp. 527-528, 1987. 15. D. Wake, D. J. Newson, M. J. Harlow and I. D. Henning, "Optically biased edge coupled InP/InGaAs heterostructure photo-transistor", Electron. Lett.,29, pp. 2217-2218, 1993. 16. A. J. Seeds, "Microwave opto-electronics", Optical and Quantum Electronics, 25, pp. 219-229, 1993. 17. C. P. Liu and A. J. Seeds, "Noise performance of a two-terminal InP/InGaAs heterojunction phototransistor opto-electronic mixer", in Int. Top. Mtg. Microwave Photonics, Kyoto, 1996, pp. 123-125. MB1 ALL OPTOELECTRONIC GENERATION AND DETECTION OF MILLIMETER-WAVE SIGNALS T. Nagatsuma, N. Sahri, M. Yaita, T. Ishibashi, N. Shimizu*, and K. Sato* NTT System Electronics Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198, Japan Tel. +81 462 40 2252, Fax. +81 462 40 4041, e-mail: [email protected]

Love Thy Neighbor As Thyself Essay Typer


Do you need Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research with with essay, research paper, homework or even dissertation?

Visit our website - https://goo.gl/HKbmHS (assignmenthelp24.com)





=================>>>CLICK HERE=================

=================>>>CLICK HERE=================

=================>>>CLICK HERE=================







=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP=================

=================>>>GET ASSIGNMENT HELP=================





que Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research son logos ethos and pathos essay
examples of a new grad nursing cover letter
personal statement examples for graduate school counseling
Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research brown university transfer essay
pollution essay 250 words is how long
researched argument assignment help
bellamy looking backward analysis essay
essay mla format citing articles
company personal statement of benefits
robber barron's and rebels essay writer
pygmalion s bride analysis essay
essay about my neighborhood
solved ms 9 assignment 2013 tx68
using quotations in writing english essays
catrin gillian clarke essay
essay henri nannen preisvergleich
masters dissertation planet
research paper on treating depression
media a2 evaluation coursework stanford
ignou assignment bshf 2014-15
cathedral carver essay
role of media in the society for essay
around the world in 80 days theme essay example
living space by imtiaz dharker essay typer
secondary 2 9.4-9.5 assignment
qualitative content analysis a focus on trustworthiness essay
dissertation university of mauritius
50 excellent extended essays business and management
dress code for boys vs girls essay
write an essay on my memorable day in life
babylon revisited essay
works of robert frost essay the figure
write art comparison essays
excerpta de dissertations in sacra theology degree
mr youse needn't be so spry analysis essay
top cover letter advice for teachers
substituted sammy essay help
to this day poem analysis essay
islamic feminism essay conclusion
clear and present danger book vs movie essay
12th std english essay format
cover letter for a employment agency
introduction to technology essay
emerson honors program essay
marketing research case study slideshare
final fantasy 14 music extended essay
structuralism in philosophy of language Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research essays
lutron homeworks 4 system
how to make an essay longer tumblr
ap gov electoral college essay
referent power in leadership essay topic
latin american revolution thematic essay outline
mens rea law essay questions
analogy essay outline
1 page essay on animal cells
pt school essay samples
lord of the flies descent into savagery essay
triptych photo essay
friend reflection essay bikes
eso16 ignou assignment
war on terror research paper
themes for huckleberry finn essay
how to publish a scientific research paper
Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research exhibition review essay example
dissertation wikihow categories
job cover letter to whom it may concern samples
khan academy rates and ratios homework
crafting a life in essay story poem
descargar album homework daft punk gratis
new sat essay rubric pdf creator
new sat test essay topics
essay about bullying pdf worksheets
free essays of macbeth
college admission essay examples-personal statement analysis
kris jenner gender reassignment
ochres essay writing
the poem valentine essay
overused words in essays are articles
employee rewards and motivation in nonprofit organisations case study from australia
custom term papers
personal reflective essay format
essay on tomb of quaid-e-azam in english
jenova chen thesis statement
importance of motivation essay outline
sample essays for grade 3
apple watch essay
victorian desalination plant case study
essay entrepreneurship development
dissertation topic list in rguhs dissertation
them and uz poem analysis essay
mulga bill's bicycle poem analysis essay
Help With Writing a Thesis Statement for a Research rice residential college system essay active assignments
gordon parks flavio's home essay by gordon
tutors panaretos homework pass
one child family essay samples
sample cover letter for resume sales samples
long should personal narrative essay
is bibliography the same as footnotes example
notes of a native son essay analysis thesis
denis rancourt climate change essay
choosing topics for essays
new england essays
carcel de amor analysis essay
jakobson r on linguistic aspects of translation essay 1959 thunderbird
writing good university essays about
stri bhrun hatya essay in marathi
business statistics research papers
year 2 maths homework help
webkinz clothing machine recipes emerald ski jacket solved assignment
manipulative in othello essays
research papers clayton college
resistant materials coursework evaluation criteria
dissertation for construction students pdf viewer
oscar ricardo canchola azuela homework
mindbody relationship definition essay
our society overly materialistic essaytyper
pro choice abortion definition essay
essay length 2000 words is how many pages
faerie queene canto 10 analysis essay
your word is truth essays in celebration
3 qualities of a hero essay
friendship reflective essay prompts
nfl officials assignments 2013
heroism essay for to kill a mockingbird
best friend essay
steps involved in microarray image analysis essay
pdf ielts essays band
essay title idea generator artists
free daily homework assignment sheets
essay on corpus linguistics methods
united breaks guitars case study analysis outline
promoting critical thinking in the elementary classroom
honesty is the best policy essay 150 words example
cause and effect layout essay
what i did last summer essay sample
cis 502 assignment 2
anthem symbolism essay
acetic acid hydrazide synthesis essay
mit sloan video essay reddit
customer service and sales representative cover letter
simplified homework online
sample resume cover letters for nurse manager
sample cover letter for accounting graduate
pete wolfendale essay on transcendental realism dictionary
current essay competitions for secondary schools in nigeria
global thematic essay political change
critical analysis essay for a rose for emily
slang for mexican essay meme
use water wisely essay contest
je vais essayer de faire de mon mieux

0 Replies to “Tutors Panaretos Homework Help”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *